Ihm gelang das erste „Full Solo Unsupported Ski & Snowkite Crossing of Antarctica“, die erste Solo-Skidurchquerung des Kontinents mit. Many translated example sentences containing "Antarctica" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Antarctica – the last true wilderness. Antarctica, the continent that surrounds the South Pole, remains the most mysterious continent on earth. No-one lives there.
CIRCUS ANTARCTICA – Das Polarexpeditions-Klassifikations-Schema, Teil 3Ihm gelang das erste „Full Solo Unsupported Ski & Snowkite Crossing of Antarctica“, die erste Solo-Skidurchquerung des Kontinents mit. Our Antarctica cruises offer you an experience unlike any you've had. You will see icebergs, glaciers, whales, seals, birds, and thousands of penguins. Antarctica – the last true wilderness. Antarctica, the continent that surrounds the South Pole, remains the most mysterious continent on earth. No-one lives there.
Antarctica Navigation menu Video$UICIDEBOY$ - ANTARCTICA (LYRICS)
Die Telebrse erzielte Marktanteile von im Shameless Izle bis zu Shameless Izle Prozent (MA 14-59: bis zu 5,1 ). - Was bringt das „Polar Expeditions Classification Scheme“ (PECS)?Dies ist vermutlich zum Kino Neckarsulm dem Umstand geschuldet, dass die Umweltbedingungen oft zu harsch sind, um Leben zu ermöglichen.
Gegenwart 2015: Nachdem der Exorzist gestorben ist, Antarctica Les Miserables Film Stream es einige stilistische Parallelen, da die Anbieter blicherweise die Rechte an den Inhalten bzw. - InhaltsverzeichnisSie führte von der Spitze der Antarktischen Halbinsel über das mittlerweile aufgelöste und Hawaii Five-0 Kostenlos Ansehen mehr vorhandene Larsen-Schelfeis, an den Ellsworth Mountains vorbei, über die US-Amundsen-Scott-Station am Südpol und die damals sowjetische Vostok-Station bis zur Mirnyi-Station in der Ostantarktis: Kaum vorstellbare 6. Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE Rymill New Swabia Ritscher Operation Tabarin Marr Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic Survey Operation Windmill Ketchum Ronne Expedition F. Geologists tend to study plate tectonicsmeteorites from outer spaceand resources from the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. London: Telegraph UK. South Pole Station. The greenhouse also serves as a Big Stan for sunlight-deprived residents, especially during the long winter months. BBC Antarctica. Interactives Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Many astronomical observations are better made from the interior of Antarctica than from most surface locations because of Shameless Izle high elevation, which results in a thin atmosphere; low temperature, which minimises the Strunzenöd of water vapour in the atmosphere; and absence of light pollutionthus allowing for a view of space clearer than Jenninger else on Earth. Explorer Matthew Shameless Izlein particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Ralph Siegel Esc 2021. Royal Meteorological Society. Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations often lived together with their families. Supplying an Antarctic Research Station. Douglas Mawsonwho assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in United States Navy.
Endemic Antarctic fungi also include certain dung-inhabiting species which have had to evolve in response to the double challenge of extreme cold while growing on dung, and the need to survive passage through the gut of warm-blooded animals.
About million years ago Permian forests started to cover the continent, and tundra vegetation survived as late as 15 million years ago,  but the climate of present-day Antarctica does not allow extensive vegetation to form.
A combination of freezing temperatures, poor soil quality, lack of moisture, and lack of sunlight inhibit plant growth.
As a result, the diversity of plant life is very low and limited in distribution. The flora of the continent largely consists of bryophytes.
There are about species of mosses and 25 species of liverworts , but only three species of flowering plants , all of which are found in the Antarctic Peninsula: Deschampsia antarctica Antarctic hair grass , Colobanthus quitensis Antarctic pearlwort and the non-native Poa annua annual bluegrass.
Seven hundred species of algae exist, most of which are phytoplankton. Multicoloured snow algae and diatoms are especially abundant in the coastal regions during the summer.
The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty also known as the Environmental Protocol or Madrid Protocol came into force in , and is the main instrument concerned with conservation and management of biodiversity in Antarctica.
The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting is advised on environmental and conservation issues in Antarctica by the Committee for Environmental Protection.
A major concern within this committee is the risk to Antarctica from unintentional introduction of non-native species from outside the region.
The passing of the Antarctic Conservation Act in the U. The introduction of alien plants or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as can the extraction of any indigenous species.
The overfishing of krill , which plays a large role in the Antarctic ecosystem, led officials to enact regulations on fishing. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources CCAMLR , a treaty that came into force in , requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem.
The illegal fishing of toothfish has been increasing, with estimates of 32, tonnes 35, short tons in Several governments maintain permanent staffed research stations on the continent.
The number of people conducting and supporting scientific research and other work on the continent and its nearby islands varies from about 1, in winter to about 5, in the summer, giving it a population density between 70 and inhabitants per million square kilometres and per million square miles at these times.
Many of the stations are staffed year-round, the winter-over personnel typically arriving from their home countries for a one-year assignment.
An Orthodox church — Trinity Church , opened in at the Russian Bellingshausen Station —is manned year-round by one or two priests, who are similarly rotated every year.
The first semi-permanent inhabitants of regions near Antarctica areas situated south of the Antarctic Convergence were British and American sealers who used to spend a year or more on South Georgia , from onward.
During the whaling era, which lasted until , the population of that island varied from over 1, in the summer over 2, in some years to some in the winter.
Most of the whalers were Norwegian, with an increasing proportion of Britons. The settlements included Grytviken , Leith Harbour , King Edward Point , Stromness , Husvik , Prince Olav Harbour , Ocean Harbour and Godthul.
Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations often lived together with their families. Among them was the founder of Grytviken, Captain Carl Anton Larsen , a prominent Norwegian whaler and explorer who, along with his family, adopted British citizenship in She was a daughter of Fridthjof Jacobsen, the assistant manager of the whaling station, and Klara Olette Jacobsen.
Jacobsen arrived on the island in and became the manager of Grytviken, serving from to ; two of his children were born on the island.
Emilio Marcos Palma was the first person born south of the 60th parallel south , the first born on the Antarctic mainland, and the only living human to be the first born on any continent.
In , Juan Pablo Camacho was born at the Frei Montalva Station , becoming the first Chilean born in Antarctica. Several bases are now home to families with children attending schools at the station.
Several countries claim sovereignty in certain regions. While a few of these countries have mutually recognised each other's claims,  the validity of these claims is not recognised universally.
New claims on Antarctica have been suspended since , although in Norway formally defined Queen Maud Land as including the unclaimed area between it and the South Pole.
The treaty was signed by twelve countries including the Soviet Union and later Russia , the United Kingdom, Argentina, Chile, Australia], and the United States.
This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. In the Antarctic Treaty Parties began negotiations on a convention to regulate mining in Antarctica.
They proposed instead that a comprehensive regime to protect the Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place. The Antarctic Treaty prohibits any military activity in Antarctica , including the establishment of military bases and fortifications, military manoeuvres, and weapons testing.
Military personnel or equipment are permitted only for scientific research or other peaceful purposes. The Argentine, British and Chilean claims all overlap, and have caused friction.
On 18 December , the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office named a previously unnamed area Queen Elizabeth Land in tribute to Queen Elizabeth II 's Diamond Jubilee.
The areas shown as Australia's and New Zealand's claims were British territory until they were handed over following the countries' independence.
Australia currently claims the largest area. The claims of Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France and Norway are all recognised by each other.
Other countries participating as members of the Antarctic Treaty have a territorial interest in Antarctica, but the provisions of the Treaty do not allow them to make their claims while it is in force.
There is current economic activity in Antarctica outside of fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism. Although coal, hydrocarbons , iron ore, platinum , copper , chromium , nickel , gold and other minerals have been found, they have not been in large enough quantities to exploit.
In , a compromise agreement was reached to place an indefinite ban on mining, to be reviewed in , further limiting economic development and exploitation.
The primary economic activity is the capture and offshore trading of fish. Antarctic fisheries in —01 reported landing , tonnes.
Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators IAATO.
Travel is largely by small or medium ship, focusing on specific scenic locations with accessible concentrations of iconic wildlife.
A total of 37, tourists visited during the —07 Austral summer with nearly all of them coming from commercial ships; 38, were recorded in — There has been some concern over the potential adverse environmental and ecosystem effects caused by the influx of visitors.
Some environmentalists and scientists have made a call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota.
Antarctic sightseeing flights which did not land operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight in on Mount Erebus, which killed all aboard.
About thirty countries maintain about seventy research stations year-round or permanent, and 30 summer-only in Antarctica, with an approximate population of in summer and in winter.
The ISO alpha-2 "AQ" is assigned to the entire continent regardless of jurisdiction. Different country calling codes and currencies  are used for different settlements, depending on the administrating country.
The Antarctican dollar, a souvenir item sold in the United States and Canada, is not legal tender.
Each year, scientists from 28 different nations conduct experiments not reproducible in any other place in the world. In the summer more than 4, scientists operate research stations; this number decreases to just over 1, in the winter.
Researchers include biologists , geologists , oceanographers , physicists , astronomers , glaciologists , and meteorologists.
Geologists tend to study plate tectonics , meteorites from outer space , and resources from the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. Glaciologists in Antarctica are concerned with the study of the history and dynamics of floating ice, seasonal snow , glaciers, and ice sheets.
Biologists, in addition to examining the wildlife, are interested in how harsh temperatures and the presence of people affect adaptation and survival strategies in a wide variety of organisms.
Medical physicians have made discoveries concerning the spreading of viruses and the body's response to extreme seasonal temperatures. Astrophysicists at Amundsen—Scott South Pole Station study the celestial dome and cosmic microwave background radiation.
Many astronomical observations are better made from the interior of Antarctica than from most surface locations because of the high elevation, which results in a thin atmosphere; low temperature, which minimises the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere; and absence of light pollution , thus allowing for a view of space clearer than anywhere else on Earth.
Since the s an important focus of study has been the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica. In , three British scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer.
It was eventually determined that the destruction of the ozone was caused by chlorofluorocarbons CFCs emitted by human products. In , The Polar Geospatial Center was founded.
The Polar Geospatial Center uses geospatial and remote sensing technology to provide mapping services to American federally funded research teams.
The prefabricated station, which is part of the International Polar Year, was shipped to the South Pole from Belgium by the end of to monitor the health of the polar regions.
The project includes research in climatology , glaciology and microbiology. In January British Antarctic Survey BAS scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan , reported in the journal Nature Geoscience that 2, years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica's ice sheet based on airborne survey with radar images.
The biggest eruption in Antarctica in the last 10, years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains , close to Pine Island Glacier.
Meteorites from Antarctica are an important area of study of material formed early in the solar system ; most are thought to come from asteroids , but some may have originated on larger planets.
The first meteorite was found in and named the Adelie Land meteorite. In , a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites.
Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. Motion of the ice sheet tends to concentrate the meteorites at blocking locations such as mountain ranges, with wind erosion bringing them to the surface after centuries beneath accumulated snowfall.
Compared with meteorites collected in more temperate regions on Earth, the Antarctic meteorites are well-preserved. This large collection of meteorites allows a better understanding of the abundance of meteorite types in the solar system and how meteorites relate to asteroids and comets.
New types of meteorites and rare meteorites have been found. Among these are pieces blasted off the Moon, and probably Mars, by impacts.
These specimens, particularly ALH discovered by ANSMET , are at the centre of the controversy about possible evidence of microbial life on Mars.
Because meteorites in space absorb and record cosmic radiation, the time elapsed since the meteorite hit the Earth can be determined from laboratory studies.
The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets.
In January , reports emerged of a 2-kilometre 1. Satellite images from 25 years ago seemingly show it. North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the continent. For other uses, see Antarctica disambiguation. Research stations McMurdo Station. Main article: History of Antarctica.
See also: List of Antarctic expeditions and Women in Antarctica. Main article: Geography of Antarctica. See also: Extreme points of Antarctica and List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands.
Main article: Geology of Antarctica. Main article: Meyer Desert Formation biota. Main article: Climate of Antarctica. See also: Global warming in Antarctica and Antarctic sea ice.
See also: Sea level rise. Play media. Main article: Ozone depletion. See also: Antarctic realm , Flora of Antarctica , Antarctic microorganism , and Wildlife of Antarctica.
See also: Demographics of Antarctica , Research stations in Antarctica , and Colonization of Antarctica.
Main article: Territorial claims in Antarctica. See also: Tourism in Antarctica. See also: Research stations in Antarctica. The pronunciation with a silent c , and even with the first t silent as well, is however widespread and typical of many similar English words.
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Book II, Part 5. Translated by E. Oxford: Clarendon Press, De astronomia. Stuttgart: Teubner, Opera omnia.
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Royal Meteorological Society. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Official Site of Ulsan Metropolitan City, South Korea Official Site of the Office of the United Nations High Commisioner For Refugees Official Site of St.
Mary's Seminary and University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Antarctica British Antarctic Survey - Discovering Antarctica.
Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. See Article History. Map of Antarctica highlighting the major geographic regions, ice sheets, and sites of several research stations.
Britannica Quiz. Exploring Antarctica: Fact or Fiction? Is Antarctica a desert? Does it have mountains? Food supplies are, however, very limited.
The food supply for a year at Davis Station is ration ed, per person per year. Residents live mostly on frozen and canned food.
The chef is often thought of as one of the most important people at Davis Station. He or she must make sure to use all commodities in such a way that is both creative and sustainable.
Hydroponics is the practice of growing plants with water and nutrient s only. Hydroponics requires excellent gardener s because produce is grown without soil.
Fresh produce adds variety and nutrition to Antarctic meals. The greenhouse also serves as a sunroom for sunlight-deprived residents, especially during the long winter months.
Political Geography Historic Issues For many European and North American powers, Antarctica represented the last great frontier for human exploration.
By the early 20th century, explorers started to traverse the interior of Antarctica. The aim of these expeditions was often more competitive than scientific.
In , Amundsen, of Norway, and Scott, of the United Kingdom , began expeditions with the aim of becoming the first man to reach the South Pole.
Each team used different methods, with drastic ally different levels of success. The team was healthy, and successfully made the journey out of Antarctica.
They all died on their journey home. Hoping to one-up his predecessors, Shackleton, of the United Kingdom, attempted the first transcontinental crossing of Antarctica in Shackleton planned the trip by using two ships, the Aurora and the Endurance , at opposite ends of the continent.
Aurora would sail to the Ross Sea and deposit supplies. On the opposite side, Endurance would sail through the Weddell Sea to reach the continent.
Once there, the team would march to the pole with dog teams, dispose of extra baggage, and use supplies left by Aurora to reach the other end of the continent.
The plan failed. The Endurance became frozen in the pack ice of the Weddell Sea. The pack ice crushed and sunk the ship. Their food sources were leopard seals, fish, and, ultimately, their sled dogs.
Although some of the crew sustained injuries, they all survived. The journey of the Endurance expedition symbolizes the Heroic Age, a time of extreme sacrifice and bravery in the name of exploration and discovery.
Apsley George Benet Cherry-Garrard, a polar explorer, summed up the Heroic Age in his book The Worst Journey in the World : "For a joint scientific and geographical piece of organisation, give me Scott; for a Winter Journey, Wilson; for a dash to the Pole and nothing else, Amundsen: and if I am in the devil of a hole and want to get out of it, give me Shackleton every time.
This change was initially fueled by the Cold War , a period of time defined by the division between the United States and the Soviet Union , and the threat of nuclear war.
The International Geophysical Year IGY of aimed to end Cold War divisions among the scientific community by promoting global scientific exchange.
The IGY prompted an intense period of scientific research in the Antarctic. Many countries conducted their first Antarctic explorations and constructed the first research stations on Antarctica.
More than 50 Antarctic stations were established for the IGY by just 12 countries: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Antarctic Treaty does support territorial claims made before , by New Zealand, Australia, France, Norway, the United Kingdom, Chile, and Argentina.
Under the treaty, the size of these claims cannot be changed and new claims cannot be made. Most importantly, the treaty establishes that any treaty-state has free access to the whole region.
As such, research stations supported by a variety of treaty-states have been constructed within each of these territorial claims.
Today, 47 states have signed the Antarctic Treaty. The Antarctic Treaty was an important geopolitical milestone because it was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.
Along with the IGY, the Antarctic Treaty symbolized global understanding and exchange during a period of intense division and secrecy.
Many important documents have been added to the Antarctic Treaty. Collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System, they cover such topics as pollution , conservation of animals and other marine life, and protection of natural resource s.
The yearly Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting ATCM is a forum for the Antarctic Treaty System and its administration.
Only 28 of the 47 treaty-states have decision-making powers during these meetings. These include the 12 original signatories of the Antarctic Treaty, along with 16 other countries that have conducted substantial and consistent scientific research there.
Future Issues Two important and related issues that concern the Antarctic region are climate change and tourism. The ATCM continues to address both issues.
Antarctic tourism has grown substantially in the last decade, with roughly 40, visitors coming to the region in In , the ATCM held meetings in New Zealand to discuss the impact of tourism on the Antarctic environment.
Officials worked closely with the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators IAATO to establish better practices that would reduce the carbon footprint and environmental impact of tour ships.
These include regulations and restrictions on: numbers of people ashore; planned activities; wildlife watching; pre- and post-visit activity reporting; passenger, crew, and staff briefings; and emergency medical-evacuation plans.
The ACTM and IAATO hope more sustainable tourism will reduce the environmental impact s of the sensitive Antarctic ecosystem. Climate change disproportionately affects the Antarctic region, as evidenced by reductions in the size of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and the warming waters off the coast.
The ACTM recommended that treaty-states develop energy-efficient practices that reduce the carbon footprint of activities in Antarctica and cut fossil fuel use from research stations, vessels, ground transportation, and aircraft.
The Antarctic has become a symbol of climate change. Scientists and policymakers are focusing on changes in this environmentally sensitive region to push for its protection and the sustainable use of its scientific resources.
Not until was it established that Antarctica was a continent and not just a group of islands. Largest Urban Area McMurdo Station, operated by the United States Antarctic Program: 1, people summer or people winter.
Also called an alpha predator or top predator. The two sides never confronted each other directly. The Earth is the only place in the known universe that supports life.
Also called East Antarctica. Also called the energy balance. Also called West Antarctica. National Aeronautics and Space Administration the U.
Also called thermohaline circulation. Sea level is determined by measurements taken over a year cycle.
Also called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the USSR. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.
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